Robin Dunbar. Why do humans drink? To the person waiting at the bar on a hot summer evening, the answer seems simple: drinking is a pleasure and a relief. To me, and to my fellow evolutionary psychologists, the answer has emerged in a different and fascinating light, thanks to some intriguing new research. It is both simple and complex at the same time. Like all monkeys and apes, humans are intensely social.
Technology led to more abstract causal reasoning
Mathews J Orthop. Several attributes are especial for primates, some of these are even more unique in humans. These may not be limited to; energy-saving bipedal posture and locomotion, complex manual skills and tool making abilities, social and cultural organisation, augmented cranial capacity, a more developed frontal lobe, and language proficiency. From a Darwinian point of view, erect posture was achieved to free the hands for tool-making. However, more recent theories suggested that bipedal locomotion was related to environmental factors which led to the advent of distinctive and remarkable anatomical features for a form of locomotion that is more energy-economic than quadrupedal locomotion.
Research has shown that individuals have an optimal walking speed—a speed which minimizes energy expenditure for a given distance. Because the optimal walking speed varies with mass and lower limb length, it also varies with sex, with males in any given population tending to have faster optimal walking speeds. This potentially creates an energetic dilemma for mixed-sex walking groups. Here we examine speed choices made by individuals of varying stature, mass, and sex walking together.
Thus significant pace adjustment appears to be limited to romantic partners. These findings have implications for both mobility and reproductive strategies of groups. In energetically demanding environments, we will expect to find gender segregation in group composition, particularly when travelling longer distances.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. In animals, such as humans, that travel substantial distances over ground, we expect selection to have led to an efficient locomotor system morphology, physiology and behavior , which allows the individual to spend as little energy and often as little time as possible on mobility.
Those species that adopt effective and efficient mobility strategies not only have time available for other tasks not directly related to mobility e. There is ample evidence for this energetic trade-off. Daily walking distances have clearly been shown to influence inter-birth-intervals IBI and offspring survivorship, with higher distances and heavier loads increasing IBIs  — .
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All rights reserved. A series of prehistoric creature illustrations demonstrates the evolution of mammals through the ages. More fact than fiction, these wild characters followed transitional Jurassic period animals that sported mammalian skull traits and reptilian teeth.
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To support the hypothesis, an international team of paleontologists, including two French researchers, has shown that these primates, which are 37 million years old and named Ganlea megacanina, had an ability observed today in modern monkeys, but not in lemurs: they pried open and ate seeds in a specific way by using their greatly enlarged canine teeth, like certain South American monkeys today.
This ability is one of the reasons that justifies them being placed in the family of anthropoid primates. This research is published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B. In primates, there exist two major lineages: anthropoid primates monkeys , apes and humans and prosimians, considered to be more primitive and whose best-known representatives today are lemurs. Until now, scientists assumed that anthropoid primates originated in Africa However, this hypothesis is now questioned.
In November , the researchers discovered several fossils in central Myanmar dating from 37 million years ago and belonging to a new species of primate named Ganlea megacanina. In November , part of the lower jaw of one member of this species was discovered. This find provides the paleontologists with powerful evidence supporting an Asian origin for anthropoid primates. The new primate has greatly enlarged canine teeth which show heavy abrasion, indicating that Ganlea megacanina used them to pry open the tough exteriors of tropical fruit in order to extract the nutritious seeds contained inside.
This is an unusual form of feeding adaptation that has never been observed in prosimian primates such as lemurs. It is, however, characteristic of South American saki monkeys, which are members of the large family of anthropoid primates. Ganlea and its closest relatives inhabited Myanmar 37 million years ago during the Eocene, in a tropical flood plain that was certainly very similar to the modern Amazon Basin.
They belonged to an extinct family of Asian anthropoid primates, the Amphipithecidae. Four other amphipithecids had previously been discovered in Asia: two in Myanmar, one in Thailand and one in Pakistan.
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Part I – questions 1, 2. Part II – questions 1, 6. Complete typed current events. Due by Wednesday on Google Classroom. Submit via google classroom. Check answers using link at the bottom of this page.
Article” Fossil Focus: Encephalized bipedal apes” by Holly M. Dunsworth bony blocks, and the arches of our feet help to store and release energy with each stride. anatomy seems to be built for short bursts of speed and long-distance travel. represented by skeletons dating to , years ago at Omo in Ethiopia.
Many animal species use tools, but human technical engagement is more complex. We argue that there is coevolution between technical engagement the manufacturing and use of tools and advanced forms of causal cognition in the human Homo lineage. As an analytic tool, we present a classification of different forms of causal thinking. Human causal thinking has become detached from space and time, so that instead of just reacting to perceptual input, our minds can simulate actions and forces and their causal consequences.
Our main thesis is that, unlike the situation for other primate species, an increasing emphasis on technical engagement made some hominins capable of reasoning about the forces involved in causal processes. This thesis is supported in three ways: 1 We compare the casual thinking about forces of hominins with that of other primates. In this article, we argue that there is coevolution between the manufacturing and use of tools and advanced forms of causal thinking.